Dan Fleming

Photo of Dan Fleming
Paul Fleming (Dan)
Professor
Office: 
(269) 276-3511
Mobile: 
(269) 808-5888
Fax: 
(269) 276-3501
Location: 
A-217 Floyd Hall, Mail Stop 5462
Mailing address: 
Chemical and Paper Engineering
Western Michigan University
1903 W Michigan Ave
Kalamazoo MI 49008-5462 USA
Office hours: 

Tues., Thurs., and Fri. 8 am - 10 am

Education: 
  • Ph.D., Chemical Physics, Harvard University, 1970.
  • AM., Physics, Harvard University, 1966.
  • B.S., Physics, Ohio State University, 1964.
Bio: 

Email - dan.fleming@wmich.edu

Dr. Fleming, professor, joined the Department of Chemical and Paper Engineering in 1996. He teaches courses in the graphic and printing science, chemical and paper engineering programs.

Dr. Fleming brings to Western over 22 years of industrial and almost 25 years academic experience. Prior to joining the faculty at Western Michigan University, Dr. Fleming was group leader in engineering design and analysis at the GenCorp Technology Center in Akron, Ohio. Previously, he held the position of Senior Research Specialist at Phillips Petroleum Research Center in Bartlesville, Oklahoma. He has held postdoctoral research associate positions in chemistry at Brown University and Columbia University. Dr. Fleming has over 350 publications and presentations to his credit and three U.S. patents.

Dr. Fleming has been involved with configuring and managing multiplatform computer networks. He has managed groups of industrial researchers and advised undergraduate and graduate students in academia. He has been involved in multidisciplinary research and consulting in industry and academia. His current research interests are surface chemistry, printed electronics, 3D printing, color management, paper coatings and whiteness measures. He is currently a co-director of the Center for Ink and Printability.

RECENT PUBLICATIONS

  1. Azem Yahamed, Michael Joyce, Paul D. Fleming, Alexandra Pekarovicova; and Pavel Ikonomov, “Polymers for 3D Printed Bone Structures, Precision, Topography and Roughness”, Revised for Journal of Imaging Science and Technology.
  2. Michael J. Joyce, Paul D. Fleming, and Alexandra Pekarovicova, “The Characterization of Surface Treated Silica-Filled and Non-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane Films”, International Journal of Surface Science and Engineering, 2017, in press.
  3. Azem Yahamed, Pavel Ikonomov, Paul D. Fleming, Alexandra Pekarovicova, and Peter Gustafson, “Medical Applications of 3D Printed Polymers”, J. Print Media Tech. Res., January 2017.
  4. Azem Yahamed, Pavel Ikonomov, Paul D. Fleming, Alexandra Pekarovicova, and Peter Gustafson, “3D Printing of Model Thermoplastic Resins for Medical Applications”, Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Editors: Edlund N., Lovrecek M., Vol 43, (2016).
  5. Husovska Veronika, Pekarovic Jan, Pekarovicova Alexandra, Fleming Paul D., “Anionically Surface Treated Inkjet and Flexographic Inks and Their Deinkability”, TAPPI J., October 2016.
  6. Roland Gong, Paul D. Fleming, John Cameron and Jan Pekarovic, “Deinking Evaluation Using Near Infrared Narrow Band Digital Image Analysis”, TAPPI J., 15(8):533-538, August 2016.
  7. Awadhoot Shendye, Burak Aksoy, Paul D. Fleming III, and Margaret Joyce, “Psychophysical tests for visual-numerical correlation of whiteness formulas”, TAPPI J., 15(5):339-345, April 2016.
  8. Ting Chen, Margaret Joyce, Paul D. Fleming, and Steven Bloembergen, “Pigmented Formulations Containing Biobased Nanoparticle Binders for Curtain Coating Applications; Part 2: Curtain Stability Analysis”, PaperCon, 2016.
  9. Ting Chen, Margaret Joyce, Paul D. Fleming, and Steven Bloembergen, “Pigmented Formulations Containing Biobased Nanoparticle Binders for Curtain Coating Applications; Part 1: Rheological Study”, PaperCon, 2016.
  10. Veronika Husovska, Jan Pekarovic, Alexandra Pekarovicova and Paul D. Fleming III, “Soybean oil for Enhanced Deinking of Litho Prints”, J. Print Media Tech. Res., 4, (2015) 4, 279-284.
  11. Michael James Joyce, Paul D. Fleming III, Alexandra Pekarovicova and Massood Zandi Atashbar, “Self-Supported Printed Multi-Layer Capacitors”, J. Print Media Tech. Res., 4, (2015) 4, 285-200.
  12. Shreyas Pathak, Alexandra Pekarovicova, and Paul D. Fleming, “Zinc Oxide Based Inks for Semi Conductive Applications”, Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Editors: Edlund N., Lovrecek M., Vol 42, (2015).
  13. Ali Eshkeiti, Avuthu S. G. Reddy, Sepehr Emamian, Binu B. Narakathu, Michael Joyce, Margaret Joyce, Paul D. Fleming, Bradley J. Bazuin, and Massood Z. Atashbar, “Screen Printing of Multilayered Hybrid Printed Circuit Boards on Different Substrates”, IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 2015.
  14. Alexandra Pekarovicova, Zahra Mashhadi Khodabakhsh, Paul D. Fleming III, “Formulation of drop on demand soy ink jet inks”, JPMTR, 4 (2015) 3, 195–204.
  15. Shreyas Pathak, Alexandra Pekarovicova, and Paul D. Fleming, “Zinc Oxide Based Inks for Semi Conductive Applications”, Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Editors: Edlund N., Lovrecek M., Vol 42, (2015).
  16. Alexandra Pekarovicova, Zahra Mashhadi Khodabakhsh, and Paul D. Fleming III, “Formulation of sustainable soy inks”, Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Editors: Edlund N., Lovrecek M., Vol 41, (2014).
  17. Michael Joyce, Sai G.R. Avuthu, Sepehr Emamian, Ali Eshkeiti, Massood Atashbar, Paul D. Fleming III, Tony Danato, “Contribution of Flexo Process Variables to Fine Line Ag Electrode Performance” International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 3, (8), 2014.
  18. Steven Bloembergen, Marcelo Pampolha Santos, Phil Greenall, Ralph DeJong, Jae Y. Shin, Nathan Jones, Paul D. Fleming, Margaret K. Joyce and Do Ik Lee, “The Effects of Biolatex Binders on the Dynamic Water Retention Properties of Paper Coating Formulations”, O PAPEL vol. 75, num. 3, pp. 60 - 70 Mar 2014.
  19. Sooman. Lim, Margaret Joyce, Paul D. Fleming, Ahmed Tausif Aijazi and Massood Atashbar, “Inkjet Printing and Sintering of Nano Copper Ink”, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 57 (5) Sept.-Oct. 2013.
  20. Paul D. Fleming, Alexandra Pekarovicova, Veronika Lovell, Angel N. Allen, and Gaurav D. Sheth, “Ink Film Opacity from Reflectance and Transparency”, Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Editors: Edlund N., Lovrecek M., Vol 40, (2013).
  21. Zheng Wei, Veronika Husovska, Paul D. Fleming III, Jan Pekarovic and John Cameron, “Toward Deinking of LEP Inks Printed on Different Substrates”, Proceedings of PaperCon 2013, April 27-May 1, Atlanta.
  22. Jae Y. Shin, Nathan Jones, Paul D. Fleming, Margaret K. Joyce, Do Ik Lee, Ralph DeJong, and Steven Bloembergen, “Dynamic Water Retention Properties of Starch Latex-Containing Coating Colors”, Proceedings of PaperCon 2013, April 27-May 1, Atlanta.
  23. Sooman Lim, Paul D Fleming and Margaret Joyce, “A Study of the Jetting Evolution of Nano Copper Ink and Nano Silver Ink with Inkjet”, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 57 (2), March 2013.
  24. Yu Ju Wu, Veronika Lovell, Alexandra Pekarovicova, Paul D. Fleming and Margaret Joyce, “Influence of Coating Pigment Porosity on Inkjet Color and Lightfastness Performance”, International Circular of Graphic Education and Research, no. 5 6-17, 2012.
  25. Husovska, V, Pekarovicova, S., Fleming, P. D., Knox, M., Fukushima, H. and Roberts, K., “Graphene Inks for Printed Electronics”, Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Editors: Edlund N., Lovrecek M., Vol 39, (2012).
  26. Seonghyuk Ko, Paul D. Fleming, Margaret K. Joyce and Pnina Ari-Gur, “Optical and photocatalytic properties of photoactive paper with polycrystalline nano TiO2 pigment for optimal design”, TAPPI Journal, 11, p33, May, 2012.
  27. Jae Y. Shin, Nathan Jones, Do Ik Lee, Paul D. Fleming, Margaret K. Joyce, Ralph DeJong, and Steven Bloembergen, “Rheological Properties of Starch Latex Dispersions and Starch Latex-Containing Coating Colors”, Proceedings of PaperCon 2012, April 22-25, New Orleans.
  28. T. Chen, M. Joyce, D. Smith and P. D. Fleming, “Influencing the Inflections in Quickset Ink Setting Profiles to Improve Sheet-fed Print Quality & Efficiency”, Proceedings of PaperCon 2012, April 22-25, New Orleans.
  29. Awadhoot Shendye, Burak Aksoy, Paul D. Fleming III and Margaret Joyce, “Psychophysical tests for Visual-Numerical Correlation of Whiteness Formulas”, Proceedings of PaperCon 2012, April 22-25, New Orleans.
  30. Sangmule S. L., Lovell V., Pekarovicova A., Fleming P. D. III, “Digital Proofing of Spot Color Overprints for Flexography”, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 56(1): 010507-1–010507-6, 2012.
  31. Paul D. Fleming, “Color Management in the Printing Industry”, invited paper, 4th International Printing Technology Symposium, Istanbul, Turkey by the organization of Marmara and Gazi Universities in the coordination of BASEV (Printing Industry Education Foundation) on 24-26 November 2011.
  32. Alexandra Pekarovicova, Veronika Lovell, and Paul D. Fleming, “Extended Color Gamut Printing for Flexo Packaging”, Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Editors: Edlund N., Lovrecek M., Vol 38, 331-338. (2011).
  33. A.S.G. Reddy, M.Z. Atashbar, M. Rebros, E. Hrehorova, B. Bazuin, Paul D. Fleming, M. Joyce “Printed capacitive based humidity sensors on flexible substrates” Sensor Letters, 9, pp. 869-871, (2011).
  34. Sinan Sonmez, Emre Dolen, Paul D. Fleming, “Binder Effects on the Creaseability of Pigment Coated Paperboard”, Asian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 23 (2011).
  35. Ramesh Kattumenu, Marian Rebros, Margaret Joyce, Erika Hrehorova and Paul D. Fleming, “Evaluation of Flexographically Printed Conductive Traces on Paper Substrates for RFID Applications”, TAGA J., 4, 219, 2011.
  36. Pekarovicova A., Lovell V., Sangmule S. L., Fleming P. D. III and Pietrack T., “Overprinting of Spot Colors for Flexo Packaging,” Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Editors: Edlund N., Lovrecek M., Vol 37, (2010).
  37. Sinan Sonmez, Paul D. Fleming, Margaret K. Joyce and Oznur Ozden, “Effects of Coat Weight and Pigment Selection on Flexographic Printability of Coated Test Liners”, Proceedings of PaperCon2010, Atlanta, May 2 - 5, 2010.
  38. Qi Li, Kelsey Lynne Dykstra, Paul D. Fleming III, Margaret K Joyce, Dewei Qi and Pnina Ari-Gur, “The Photocatalytic Paper with Coating Formulations of Titanium Dioxide and Natural Zeolite”, Proceedings of PaperCon2010, Atlanta, May 2 - 5, 2010.
  39. Seonghyuk Ko, Jan Pekarovic, Paul D. Fleming and Pnina Ari Gur, “High performance nano titania photocatalytic paper composite. Part I: Experimental design study for TiO2 composite sheet using a natural zeolite microparticle system and its photocatalytic property”, Materials Science and Engineering B, 166 (2010) 127-131.
  40. Seonghyuk Ko, Pnina Ari-Gur, Margaret Joyce and Paul D. Fleming, “High performance nano titania photocatalytic paper composite. Part II: Preparation and characterization of natural zeolite-based nano titania composite sheets and study of their photocatalytic activity”, Materials Science and Engineering B, 164 (2009) 135–139.
  41. Alexandra Pekarovicova, Veronika Lovell, Yu Ju Wu, Paul D. Fleming, and Bill Guillot, “Rotogravure Spot Color Proofing for Decorative Laminates using SmartColour iVue Software,” IARIGAI 36th International Research Conference on Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, September 6-9, (2009).
  42. Sindphale V., Pekarovicova A., Fleming P. D.: “Sustainable Green Inks for Flexo: Development and Printability Study”, Flexo Magazine, September 2009, 64-68.
  43. Ramesh Kattumenu, Marian Rebros, Margaret Joyce, Paul D. Fleming and Gururaj Neelgund, “Effect of Substrate properties on Conductive Traces Printed with Silver-Based Flexographic Ink”, NPPRJ, 2009, 24, p.101-106.
  44. Takanori Otsuhata, Paul D. Fleming, Margaret K. Joyce, “Investigation into the Coating Layer Requirements for Compatibility with Multiple Inkjet Ink Sets”, Proceedings of the TAPPI Coating and Graphic Conference, St. Louis, May 31, June 3, 2009.
  45. Hemant Bohra, Paul D. Fleming III and Margaret K. Joyce, “Surface Energy of Coated Paper: Effect of Calendering Conditions and Relative Humidity”, Proceedings of the TAPPI Coating and Graphic Conference, St. Louis, May 31, June 3, 2009.
  46. V. Chovancova-Lovell and P. D. Fleming III, “Color Gamut – New Tool in the Pressroom?”, TAPPI J, February 2009, pp4-11.
  47. Peeyush Tripathi, Margaret Joyce, Paul D. Fleming and Masahiro Sugihara, “A Statistical Study of Process Variables to Optimize a High Speed Curtain Coater-Part II”, TAPPI J., February 2009, pp29-32.
  48. Peeyush Tripathi, Margaret Joyce, Paul D. Fleming and Masahiro Sugihara, “A Statistical Study of Process Variables to Optimize a High Speed Curtain Coater-Part I”, TAPPI J., January 2009, pp20-26.
  49. Pekarovic J., Pekarovicova A., Fleming III P. D., “Preparation of Biosilica- enriched Filler and an Example of its Use in Papermaking Retention System (Priprava biokremikom obohateneho plnidla a jeho pouzitie v papierenskom retencnom systeme)”, Papir a Celuloza, 63, 7-8, 218-222, 2008.
  50. Yu-Ju Wu, Miro Suchy, Paul D. Fleming III and Alexandra Pekarovicova, “Quality Analysis of Spot Color Reproduction with Inkjet Printers”, JIST, November-December, 2008, Vol. 52 (6).
  51. Pekarovicova, A., Hrehorova, E., Fleming, P. D., Rebros, M., Joyce, M. K., “Rotogravure for Printed Electronics,” IARIGAI 35th International Research Conference on Advances in Printing and Media Technology, Valencia, Spain, September 7-10, (2008).
  52. Lokendra Pal, Margaret K. Joyce, Paul D. Fleming, Stéphanie A. Cretté and Charles Ruffner, “High Barrier Sustainable Co-Polymerized Coatings”, Journal of Coating Technology Research, 5 (4) 479–489, 2008.
  53. Erika Hrehorova, Marian Rebros, Alexandra Pekarovicova, Paul D. Fleming, and Valery N. Bliznyuk, “Characterization of Conductive Polymer Inks based on PEDOT:PSS”, TAGA J. 4, 219 (2008).
  54. Renmei Xu, Yu Ju Wu, Alexandra Pekarovicova, Paul D. Fleming and Michelle X. Wang, “The Effects of paper Coating on Gravure Ink Mileage”, TAGA J. 4, 119 (2008).
  55. Yu Ju Wu, Alexandra Pekarovicova and Paul D. Fleming, “The Effect of Paper Properties on the Color Reproduction for Digital Proofing of Gravure Publication Printing”, TAGA Journal, 4(2), 72-83 (2008).
  56. Renmei Xu, Alexandra Pekarovicova, Paul D. Fleming, and Valery Bliznyuk, “Physical Properties of LWC Papers and Gravure Ink Mileage”, TAPPI J., December 2007 p 27.
  57. Paul D. Fleming III, Bradley Bazuin, Marian Rebros, Erika Hrehorova, Margaret K. Joyce, Alexandra Pekarovicova, and Valery Bliznyuk, “Printed Electronics at Western Michigan University”, invited paper in Proceedings of the AIChE’s 2007 Annual Meeting, November 4-9, 2007, Salt Lake City.
  58. Peeyush Tripathi, Margaret Joyce, Do Ik Lee, Paul D. Fleming and Masahiro Sugihara, “Comparison of the Surface and Print Quality of Curtain and Blade Coated Papers”, TAGA Journal VOL. 3, 2003-2013 (2007).
  59. Mario A Cruz, Margaret Joyce, Paul D. Fleming, Marion Rebros, Alexandra Pekarovicova, “Surface Topography Contribution to RFID Tag Efficiency Related to Conductivity”, Proceedings of the TAPPI Coating and Graphics Arts Conference, Miami, April 22-25, 2007.
  60. Mario A Cruz, Margaret Joyce, Paul D. Fleming, Roy Rosenberger, “Comparative Study: Verity IA Topography, Emveco, and Parker Print Surf”, Proceedings of the TAPPI Papermakers & PIMA International Leadership Conference, Jacksonville, March 11-15, 2007.
  61. Veronika Chovancova-Lovell, Paul D. Fleming III, Ben Starr and Abhay Sharma, “Side by Side Soft Proofing with CRT and LCD Monitors”, TAGA J., 3, 144, 2007.
  62. Veronika Chovancova-Lovell, Alexandra Pekarovicova and Paul D. Fleming III, “Novel Phase Change Inks for Printing 3D Structures”, J. Imaging Sci. Technol., 50(6): 550–555, November-December 2006.
  63. Lokendra Pal, Margaret K. Joyce and P. D. Fleming, “A Simple Method for Calculation of Permeability Coefficient of Porous Media”, TAPPI J., September 2006, p 10.
  64. Peeyush Tripathi, Margaret Joyce and Paul D. Fleming, “New Curtain Coating Technology Offers Benefits for Barrier Coated Grades”, TAPPI Solutions, 89(7), July 2006.
  65. Marian Rebros, Paul D. Fleming and Margaret K. Joyce, “UV-Inks, Substrates and Wetting”, Proceedings of the 2006 TAPPI Coating & Graphic Arts Conference, April 24-27, Atlanta.
  66. Peeyush Tripathi, Margaret Joyce, Do Ik Lee, Paul D. Fleming and Masahiro Sugihara, “A Study for the Statistical Optimization of a High Speed Curtain Coater”, Proceedings of the 2006 TAPPI Coating & Graphic Arts Conference, April 24-27, Atlanta.
  67. Lokendra Pal and Paul D. Fleming, “The Study of Ink Pigment Dispersion Parameters”, The Hilltop Review, 2, 61 (2006).
  68. Andrea Frimova, Alexandra Pekarovicova, Paul D. Fleming III and Jan Pekarovic, “Ink Stability During Printing”, TAGA J., 2, 121, December 2005.
  69. Veronika Chovancova, Paul Howell, Paul D. Fleming III and Adam Rasmusson, “Color and Lightfastness of Different Epson Ink Jet Ink Sets”, J. Imaging Sci. Technol., 49 (6), November/December 2005, 652-659.
  70. Renmei Xu, Paul D. Fleming III, Alexandra Pekarovicova, and Valery Bliznyuk, “The Effect of Ink Jet Papers Roughness on Print Gloss and Ink Film Thickness”, J. Imaging Sci. Technol., 49 (6), November/December 2005, 660-665.
  71. Alexandra Pekarovicova and Paul D. Fleming III, Recent Advances in Ink on Paper Technology, Pira Press, 2005.
  72. Renmei Xu, Alexandra Pekarovicova, Paul D. Fleming, and Valery Bliznyuk, “Physical Properties of LWC Papers and Gravure Ink Mileage”, Proceedings of the 2005 TAPPI Coating & Graphic Arts Conference, April 17-20, in Toronto, ON, Canada.
  73. Hyun Kook Lee, Margaret K. Joyce and Paul D. Fleming, “Influence of Pigment Particle Size and Pigment Ratio on Printability of Glossy Inkjet Paper Coatings”, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 49:1 54-61, January-February 2005.
  74. Hyun Kook Lee, Margaret K. Joyce, Paul D. Fleming and, James E. Cawthorne, “Influence of Silica and Alumina on Coating Structure and Print Quality of Ink Jet Papers”, TAPPI Journal, Vol. 4, 11-16 (2005).
  75. Paul D. Fleming, Holly Jewell and Aniruddha D. Khandekar, “The Leverage of Gray Balance in Controlling Perceptual and Quantitative Colorimetry”, Journal of Graphic Technology, 3, 43 (2004).
  76. Paul D. Fleming, Steve Fryzlewicz and Jason Dollak, “Stochastic Screening using Photoshop: What to do when your RIP doesn’t Support It”, Journal of Graphic Technology, 3, 15 (2004).
  77. Paul D. Fleming, “Printing”, Encyclopedia of Forest Sciences, Jeffery Burley Editor, Volume 2, pp678-686, Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford 2004.
  78. Paul D. Fleming III and Margaret K. Joyce, “Ink Jet Papers in the 21st Century” Proceedings of the European Coating Conference: The Power of Ink Jet Materials, December 4, 5, 2003, Berlin Germany.
  79. Paul D. Fleming, James E. Cawthorne, Falguni Mehta, Saurabh Halwawala and Margaret K. Joyce, “Interpretation of Dot Area and Dot Shape based on Image Analysis”, Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, 47, 394 (2003).
  80. Burak Aksoy, Margaret K. Joyce and Paul D. Fleming, “Comparative Study of Brightness/Whiteness Using Various Analytical Methods on Coated Papers Containing Colorants”, Proceedings of the TAPPI Spring Technical Conference & Trade Fair, Chicago, May 2003.
  81. Abhay Sharma and Paul D. Fleming, “Measuring the Quality of ICC Profiles and Color-Management Software” Seybold Report, Vol. 2, No. 19 January 13, 2003.
  82. James E. Cawthorne, Margaret Joyce and Paul D. Fleming, “Use of A Chemically Modified Clay as a Replacement for Silica in Matte Coated Ink Jet Papers”, J. Coat. Tech, 75, No. 937, pp 75-81, Feb. 2003.
  83. Alexandra Pekarovicova, Hrishikesh Bhide, Paul D. Fleming III, and Jan Pekarovic, “Phase Change Inks”, J. Coat. Tech, 75, No. 936, pp 65-72, Jan. 2003.
  84. Paul D. Fleming and Abhay Sharma, “Color Management and ICC Profiles; Can’t Live Without It So Learn to Live With It!”, Gravure Magazine, August 2002, p56.
  85. Hyun Kook Lee, Margaret K. Joyce, Paul D. Fleming and, John Cameron, “Production of a Single Coated Glossy Inkjet Paper Using Conventional Coating and Calendering Methods”, Proceedings of the TAPPI Coating Conference, Atlanta, May 2002, pp357-380.
  86. Paul D. Fleming, “Digital Prepress and Printing”, The Print Directory, http://www.theprintdirectory.co.uk/tp1/TecnicalTopicsDetails.asp?ID=45 (and 47,48), posted March 20, 2001.
  87. Paul D. Fleming, “An Introduction to the Lithographic Process”, The Print Directory, http://www.theprintdirectory.co.uk/tp1/TecnicalTopicsDetails.asp?ID=39 (and through 43), posted March 20, 2001.
  88. Chandra Duraiswamy, Margaret K. Joyce, Paul D. Fleming and Thomas W. Joyce, “Effects of Starch Type on the Silicone Holdout of Release Papers”, TAPPI J., Peer Reviewed Paper, March 2001, 84, No. 3.
  89. Chandra Duraiswamy, Margaret K. Joyce, Paul D. Fleming and Thomas W. Joyce, “Effects of Starch Type on the Silicone Holdout of Release Papers”, Proceedings of the TAPPI Coating Conference, May, 2000.