Top Contents Bibliography C.1. General works C.2. Grammars C.3. Dictionaries and concordances C.4. Bibliographies C.5. Old English texts and translations C.6. Literary criticism; sources and analogues; meter C.7. History and culture C.8. Manuscripts, art and archaeology C.9. On-line aids

Appendix C. Further Reading

1. General works

For a well-illustrated general account of the Anglo-Saxons, consult Campbell et al. 1982. If you have a specific query, consult Lapidge et al. 1999, which is also good for browsing. Szarmach et al. 1998, which covers England through the Middle Ages, also has many useful entries relating to Anglo-Saxon England.

2. Grammars

Several scholarly grammars will give you far more information about Old English than this book does. Campbell 1959 is the standard grammar of Old English for English speakers; although a bit dated, it is still a mine of information, especially on the pre-history of the language. For those who know German, Brunner 1965 is also invaluable, especially for its information on Old English dialects. A more recent two-volume grammar, Hogg 1992 (for phonology) and Hogg and Fulk 2011 is informed by recent linguistic theory.

The field of Old English syntax is mapped by Mitchell 1985. Since the appearance of Mitchell’s work, now a standard reference, there has been a torrent of useful work on the subject. Two important and accessible books on Old English syntax are Blockley 2001 and Donoghue 1987.

Lass 1994 is a well written tour of the history of Old English for students who know at least a little about linguistics. For a survey of the other Germanic languages, see Robinson 1992.

3. Dictionaries and concordances

The standard dictionary of Old English is Bosworth-Toller. Its quality is uneven, largely because Bosworth, who was responsible for the letters A–G, was not quite up to the job of compiling an Old English dictionary. However, Toller was an excellent lexicographer, and if one remembers always to check his Supplement for words beginning A–G, the dictionary is still quite serviceable (Campbell’s contribution is a thin supplement published about fifty years afer the dictionary was complete). This venerable dictionary is being superseded by Cameron et al., 1986–, now complete through G; it was originally issued on microfiche, but is now issued on CD-ROM instead. Clark Hall and Meritt 1960 is an excellent compact dictionary for students. The standard etymological dictionary is Holthausen 1963.

The ‘Old English Aerobics Glossary’ is not as complete as the printed dictionaries, but it allows a user to look up words by headword, attested form, or definition (and thus can function as a reverse dictionary).

The entire corpus of Old English was concorded by the Dictionary of Old English Project at the University of Toronto; the result is Healey and Venezky 1980, published on microfiche. Those whose libraries subscribe to the Old English Corpus on line, however, should generally prefer that as a much more flexible tool for researching the language. If you want a concordance of the poetry only, consult Bessinger 1978.

4. Bibliographies

Greenfield and Robinson 1980 is a comprehensive bibliography of publications on Old English literature up to 1972. For annotated bibliographies of Beowulf scholarship, see Short 1980 and Hasenfratz 1993. For a bibliography of Anglo-Saxon history, see Keynes 2006.

Comprehensive annual bibliographies are published in two journals, Old English Newsletter and Anglo-Saxon England. The literature section of the bibliography in Old English Newsletter is classified by work and therefore very useful for literary research; this bibliography is also searchable on line.

5. Old English texts and translations

Several published collections contain texts for students of Old English. Especially good ones, aside from the one in this book, are Marsden 2004, Mitchell and Robinson 1992, Whitelock 1975 and Pope and Fulk 2000. Methuen’s Old English Library, which published student-oriented editions of prose and poetry, has been discontinued, but its editions have been reissued (with additional bibliography) in the series Exeter Medieval English Texts, which has also published several Old English editions of its own. Mitchell and Robinson 1998 is a good edition of Beowulf for students. Old English Aerobics includes a growing collection of on-line texts of Old English prose and poetry with complete glossaries and full grammatical information about each word and clause.

To locate scholarly editions of Old English texts, see Greenfield and Robinson 1980. For editions published after 1972, consult the annual bibliographies listed above. The standard edition of almost all the Old English poetry is Krapp and Dobbie 1931–53. For the poems of the Exeter Book, see also Muir 2000, and for Beowulf see Fulk, Bjork, and Niles 2008 (a welcome update of what has long been the standard scholarly edition) and Kiernan 2000.

Several series have published significant numbers of Old English texts. The Early English Text Society has been publishing Old English and Middle English texts since 1864; most Old English editions published up to around 1900 are accompanied by translations. A German series, Bibliothek der angelsächsischen Prosa, published editions of Old English prose in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; several of these are still useful.

In addition to the translations included with some of the editions mentioned above, the student should know of two important collections, Bradley 1982 for poetry (supersedes Gordon 1954, which is nevertheless still useful) and Swanton 1993 for prose.

6. Literary criticism; sources and analogues; meter

To get started reading about Old English literature, you would do well to consult Donoghue 2004, which provides a broad overview. Fulk and Cain 2003 provide a more detailed survey. Older but still useful surveys include Greenfield, Calder and Lapidge 1986 and Alexander 1983. Important student-oriented collections of essays include Godden and Lapidge 1991, O’Keeffe 1997, Bjork 1996, Pulsiano and Treharne 2001, Johnson and Treharne 2005 and North and Allard 2007.

The series Basic Readings in Anglo-Saxon England collects useful essays on individual topics, authors and works: see Baker 2000, O’Keeffe 1994, Bjork 1996, Szarmach 2000 and Liuzza 2002. Fulk 1991 is a good collection of criticism on Beowulf, and Bjork and Niles 1997 surveys the history of Beowulf scholarship. Orchard 2003 is another good guide to Beowulf.

Sources and analogues of Old English poetry have been conveniently collected in Calder and Allen 1976 and Calder et al. 1983; for analogues of Beowulf, see Garmonsway and Simpson 1969.

There have been many books on metre, especially in recent decades. Terasawa 2011 provides and excellent introduction; important studies include Bliss 1967, Russom 1987, Cable 1991 and Fulk 1992.

7. History and culture

Readers interested in Anglo-Saxon history should consult Keynes 2006 if possible (it is excellent but hard to get). Here we list a few works of general interest. The standard history of Anglo-Saxon England (if there is such a thing) is Stenton 1971. Two good general introductions to the history and culture are Hunter Blair 1977 and Campbell et al. 1982. See Fell 1984 for an account of women in Anglo-Saxon England. Pelteret 2000 is a collection of useful recent essays.

8. Manuscripts, art and archaeology

The indispensable guide to the manuscripts containing Old English is Ker 1957 (which also contains a brief and lucid introduction to Old English palaeography, pp. xxiii–xlii); see also Ker 1976, the supplement to his Catalogue, and Gneuss 2001, which lists all manuscripts known to have been in England before 1100. For a survey of illuminated manuscripts, see Alexander 1978 and Temple 1976, and for a collection of useful essays, Richards 1994. Useful introductory guides to manuscript studies include Brown 1994, Roberts 2005 and Clemens and Graham 2007. For a comprehensive survey of western palaeography, see Bischoff 1990. Brown 1994 is a copiously illustrated general introduction to Anglo-Saxon manuscript culture.

The series Early English Manuscripts in Facsimile has published twenty-six volumes of high-quality facsimiles of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Pulsiano et al. 1994– aims to produce descriptions and microfiche facsimiles of all manuscripts containing Old English. Important facsimiles of individual manuscripts and works include Zupitza 1967 for Beowulf, Chambers et al. 1933 for the Exeter Book, Gollancz 1927 for the Junius Manuscript and Flower and Smith 1941 for the oldest manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.

Electronic facsimiles are becoming increasingly important, both because of the research advantages of having images that can be manipulated and because they are relatively cheap to produce. Kiernan 2000, a pioneer in this area, contains a facsimile of the Beowulf manuscript and the “Thorkelin transcripts” from which editors restore damaged passages of that poem, along with a rich selection of supplementary material and an on-line edition. Muir 2004 is an electronic facsimile of Oxford, Bodleian Library, MS Junius 11, a book of Old English poetry, and Muir 2006 is a similar facsimile of The Exeter Book.

A good (and copiously illustrated) introduction to the art of Anglo-Saxon England is Wilson 1984. For the archaeology, see Wilson 1981, and the essays in Karkov 1999.

9. On-line aids

For World Wide Web browsing, you should add several pages to your list of bookmarks:
‘Teachers of Old English in Britain and Ireland’ is a collection of resources for teachers and students of Old English.
Simon Keynes’s homepage contains a comprehensive collection of links for historians.
Instructional materials, including exercises and flashcards, by Murray McGillivray of the University of Calgary.
‘The Labyrinth’ is a collection of links and materials for medievalists, including a good collection of Old English electronic texts. It appears to be no longer maintained; many internal links are broken, but the resources formerly linked to (especially good electronic texts of Old English poetry) can generally be accessed via Internet search engines.
The Richard Rawlinson Center for Anglo-Saxon Studies and Manuscript Research at Western Michigan University has published several original on-line editions of Old English texts on its site and is the home of or has links to a number of other scholarly projects.
‘Old English Aloud’ is a selection of Old English texts, well read by Michael D. C. Drout of Wheaton College.
On-line edition of most of the manuscripts of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle by Tony Jebson.

10. On-line amusements
A website for ‘Englisc’, a mailing list for people who like to write Old English. Follow the links to ‘Ðæt Gettysburg Gemaþel’ or ‘The New Anglo-Saxon Chronicles’ (current events narrated in Old English).
An Old English version of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An excellent place to exercise your Old English composition skills.
“Modern English to Old English Vocabulary.” An aid to composition.
‘Circolwyrde Wordhord’: A glossary of Old English computer terminology.