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Doctoral Dissertation Announcement
Candidate: Shannon McMorrow
Doctor of Philosophy
Department: Interdisciplinary Health Sciences
Title: HIV/AIDS Coverage in the Daily Nation Newspaper: A Mixed Methods Content Analysis to Inform Health Promotion and HIV Prevention in Kenya
Dr. Mary Lagerwey, Chair
Dr. Amy Curtis
Dr. Leigh Ford
Date: Thursday, June 21, 2012 10:00 a.m. to Noon
College of Health and Human Services, Room 1057
The purpose of this three-paper dissertation was to analyze coverage of HIV/AIDS in the Daily Nation newspaper from 1989-2003 to inform future health promotion and HIV prevention efforts in Kenya.
The first paper examined whether, and if so, how Daily Nation coverage of HIV/AIDS changed after the 1999 declaration by President Moi of AIDS as a national emergency. A quantitative content analysis was conducted and the variables of interest were clipping type, politics, stigma, behavior change, and geographical focus on Kenya. Results showed statistically significant changes in type of item, focus on Kenya, and coverage of politics after 1999. Increases in letters to the editor and items with a focus on Kenya indicate positive changes from a health promotion perspective. The substantial increase in coverage of politics raises questions about whether this increase led to reductions in other health promotion-related topics such as behavior change.
The second paper compared results from a quantitative content analysis of HIV/AIDS in the Daily Nation from 1989, 1993, 1998, and 2003 with epidemiological data from Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys (KDHS) for the same years. The variables of interest were youth, abstinence, partner reduction and condom use. Results showed coverage of sexual behaviors was low with slight variation among behaviors. Condom use was the most frequently covered behavior in the Daily Nation with KDHS showing positive change in knowledge, but no behavior change. There was no pattern to suggest that newspaper coverage preceded youth sexual behavior changes or conversely, that coverage mirrored sexual behavior changes. Results pointed toward further exploration of how condoms were being discussed in the media in Kenya.
The third paper explored how condoms were discussed and displayed in the Daily Nation from 1989-2003. Qualitative content analysis was conducted for 91 news items mentioning condoms and HIV/AIDS. Findings revealed four major themes of “controversy and confusion”, “we need to do more: condoms might help”, “not for Kenyans or from Kenyans”, and “negative associations”. Understanding of these themes provides needed insight into the socio-cultural context surrounding condoms in Kenya that is often lacking within health promotion and HIV prevention programs.