Ioana Raluca Mazarc
Doctor of Philosophy
Title: State Regulations of Smoking in Public Places:
Determinants and Implementations on the Demand for Cigarettes and Consumers'
Dr. Donald L. Alexander, Chair
Dr. Matthew L. Higgins
Dr. Huizhong Zhou
Dr. Robert M. Feinberg
Date: Friday, July 20, 2001 10:00 a.m. - 12:00 p.m.
My dissertation consists of three essays that examine in detail state
smoking regulations in public places. In my first essay, starting from
the economic theory of regulation, I study the factors that explain
states' regulatory behavior. I use the Weibull parametric hazard model
to estimate the factors that affect the time when states choose to regulate
smoking in public places. Using an ordered probit model, I estimate
the factors that determine the severity of smoking legislation. The
results show that economic, social and political factors affect the
timing and the form of no-smoking regulations. While the economic theory
of regulation explains the timing of no-smoking regulations, the severity
of these restrictions is explained by the public interest theory.
In my second essay,
I investigate how states' smoking restrictions may affect the cigarette
consumption. I extend Heckman's (1978) model, and I make the distinction
between the states' sentiment toward smoking and the impact of legislation
per se, in order to assess the true impact of no-smoking regulations.
The results show that regulations of smoking in public places have no
impact on the demand for cigarettes. It is the sentiment toward
smoking that affects the cigarette consumption. One standard deviation
increase in the anti-smoking sentiment leads to a decrease of approximately
12 packs of cigarettes per year in cigarette consumption.
In my third essay, I consider the implication of regulations of smoking
in public places on the alcohol consumption. Introducing the no-smoking
regulations in the demand for alcohol equation may help to a more accurate
estimation of the effect of cigarette price. I use a model similar to
the one developed in the second essay, and I include the anti-smoking
sentiment in the demand for alcohol equation. This way I study whether
the estimated sentiment captures a broader attitude of the public against
drug use in general.