Candidate: Karl G. Hokenmaier
Doctor of Philosophy
July 10, 2002
Typically, education is not included with other social programs in depicting the policy profiles of welfare states. I argue it should be because of a state's education policy is closely associated with, and is a component of, its overall welfare strategy. Education policy both affects and reflects the welfare strategy of the state. Education policy can be made an instrument to serve welfare, economic, labor, and any number of other policy objectives. Moreover, the socioeconomic benefits an individual may realize with educational achievement can become functionally equivalent to, and even exceed, what may be received through social insurance.
Heidenheimer (1981) argued that the basis for the relationship between education and social insurance policies was determined during the initial states of welfare state development. In particular, for American and Europe, "the emphasis on education and social security programs are viewed as the cores of alternative strategies pursued by emerging welfare states" (269). Helco (1985) spoke of an "implicit trade-off," a choice made between investment in educational opportunities or the expansion of social insurance programs. More generally, Castles (1989) has recommended that preferential state support of public education or social insurance programs may be considered as alternative policy strategies supported by welfare states today.
This work examines the policy record for evidence of different welfare states types with such alternative policy strategies, and of a "trade-off" between state investment in education and other social programs. Both case studies and a quantitative analysis are utilized for this purpose. Case studies of Germany and the U.S. explore the development of social insurance and education policy in welfare states Esping-Andersen has classified respectively as "conservative" and "liberal." Recent public expenditures data for 18 Western industrial nations is analyzed to test the "trade-off" Theses and the nature of the relationship between education and social insurance. The results indicate an association does exist between the education and social programs welfare states support. Specifically, the kinds of welfare Esping-Andersen described - liberal, conservative, and social democratic - can be lined with characteristic education policies. There is also evidence of a "trade-off." Certain kids of welfare regimes exhibit a tendency to invest in education or social insurance programs as alternative policy strategies.
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